Tagged: GOES

Comparing Two LNA’s for HRIT/LRIT (GOES) Reception

Over on his blog Lucas Teske has been comparing the LNA4ALL and an SPF5189 LNA from eBay on HRIT/LRIT reception from GOES satellites. SPF5189 LNA’s can be found on eBay for less than $8 USD, with free shipping from China, whereas the LNA4ALL costs 27 Euros shipped from Croatia. GOES is a geosynchronous orbit weather satellite which requires a satellite dish or other high gain antenna to receive. It downlinks at about 1.7 GHz, which means that a high quality LNA with low noise figure and good PCB design is needed for reception.

In his post Lucas mentions how he saw a review on eBay stating that the SPF5189 did not work at L-band. However, he found that odd as all of his SPF5189 LNA’s seemed to work just fine with L-band reception. So he did a benchmark comparing the SPF5189 to the PSA5043+ based LNA4ALL which is known to work well on L-band.

From his comparisons he found that the SPF5189 does indeed work well on L-band, and is comparable to the LNA4ALL. He concludes that the reviewer must have received a bad unit, or didn’t know what he was doing.

Lucas also makes an important note regarding the PCB design of these LNA’s. Even though the SPF5189 and PSA5043 chips have similar specs, with LNA’s the design of the PCB is crucial, as a poor design can significantly degrade performance. With the LNA4ALL you can be sure that the design is good, although the SPF5189 LNA’s currently on eBay look to be designed okay as well. Though with some eBay sellers there is no guarantee that you will receive a good board. We note that we have seen some really poor designs for PSA5043 LNA’s out there as well.

The eBay SPF5189 LNA vs the LNA4ALL from 9A4QV
The eBay SPF5189 LNA vs the LNA4ALL from 9A4QV

Receiving GOES 16 Weather Satellite Images with the Open Satellite Project

Back in October/November of last year Lucas Teske showed us how to receive weather satellite images from the GOES line of geostationary satellites with an Airspy SDR (and possibly an RTL-SDR too), dish antenna and the decoding software that he created. 

On November 19, 2016 the next generation GOES 16 (aka GOES-R) satellite was launched by NASA. GOES 16 is a little different to the older GOES satellites as it has better sensors and is capable of capturing and transmitting a new image every 15 minutes which is quite fast. Thus a different and higher bandwidth RF transmission protocol called HRIT (High Rate Information Transfer) is used, compared to the LRIT (Low Rate Information Transfer) signal used on the older satellites.

Once the satellite started transmitting in January 2017, Lucas got to work on trying to create a decoder for the new satellite. After noticing some discrepancies between the published HRIT specs and the actual signal, Lucas sent off an email to NOAA and actually received an email back with the full specifications. With this information he was able to update his Open Satellite Project code and start decoding images from GOES 16.

The images being sent right now seem to just be relays of other similar satellites like Himawari-8 and Meteosat, as it seems that they are still testing the satellite. The relayed images received via GOES 16 received by Lucas can be seen on the Open Satellite Project twitter feed and on Lucas’ personal twitter feed.

Full disk image received via GOES 16, relayed from the Himawari-8 satellite.
Full disk image received via GOES 16, relayed from the Himawari-8 satellite.
Weather data received via GOES 16.
Weather data received via GOES 16.

Receiving GOES Weather Satellite Images with a Small Grid Antenna and an Airspy Mini

GOES is an L-band geosynchronous weather satellite service that can be received typically with a satellite dish. It produces very nice full disk images of the earth. In the past we’ve posted about Lucas Teske’s work in building a GOES receiving system from scratch (including the software decoder for Airspy and RTL-SDR receivers), devnullings post about receiving GOES and also this talk by @usa_satcom on decoding GOES and similar satellites.

Over on Twitter @usa_satcom has been tweeting about his experiments where he has been successfully receiving GOES L-Band weather satellite images with a small grid antenna and an Airspy Mini. In a Tweet he writes that the antenna is an $85 USD Hyperlink 1.9 GHz 22 dBi Grid Antenna made by L-com. A grid antenna may be more suitable for outdoor mounting for many people as they are typically lighter, smaller and more suitable for windy and snowy conditions. As the GOES satellite is in geosynchronous orbit, no tracking motor or tracking mount is required.


Demuxing Frames and Generating Images from the GOES Weather Satellite

In his latest two posts Lucas Teske continues with his series about receiving and downloading weather satellite images from the GOES satellites. In past posts he’s show us how to receive the signal with a satellite dish and Airspy or RTL-SDR (part 1), how to demodulate the signal (part 2), and how to extract frames from the demodulated signal (part 3). Lucas has recently completed his series with parts 4 and 5 having just been uploaded.

In part 4 Lucas shows how to parse the frames and get the packets which will ultimately be used to generate the weather image files. His post explains how to de-randomize the frame data which is initially randomized to improve performance, how to add Reed Solomon error correction, how to demux the virtual channels and the packets and finally how to save the raw packet.

The packet structure
The packet structure

In part 5 Lucas shows us how to finally generate weather satellite images from the GOES satellites. He notes that there is a problem with the LritRice compression method used by NOAA, because the library is currently broken on Linux. So he made a workaround which involved making a Windows application that runs through Wine for decompressing the data. Once the files are decompressed he uses the xrit2pic program which can open the generated .lrit files and convert them into images.

In the future Lucas mentions that he will write a user guide to his LRIT decoder, and make the whole decoding process more user friendly for people who do not care so much about the actual decoding process. Below are some images that Lucas was able to receive with his system.

GOES Full Disk Image of the Earth
GOES Full Disk Image of the Earth
Weatherfax (WEFAX) Image
Weatherfax (WEFAX) Image

Building a Frame Decoder for the GOES Weather Satellite

Yesterday we posted about Lucas Teskes (@lucasteske) success in building a demodulator for the GOES weather satellite. Before that he also showed us how to build an antenna system to receive GOES with an Airspy or RTL-SDR dongle.

Today Lucas continues with part three of his series on GOES decoding. This time he shows how he has built a frame decoder to process the output of the demodulator, and also gives us a link to his code. The decoder is written in C code. Lucas’ post explains how to sync the frame by detecting the preamble, perform convolution encoding to generate a parity and help correct any errors, and decode the frame data.

In part four Lucas will show us how to parse the frame data and extract the packets which will eventually form an image file of the earth.

A decode frame viewed as an image. This shows the syncword pattern and frame counter.
A decode frame viewed as an image. This shows the syncword pattern and frame counter.

Creating a GOES Weather Satellite Demodulator

Last week we posted about Lucas Teske’s (@lucasteske) experience with setting up an antenna system that can receive the geostationary GOES weather satellites. He set up a dish antenna, feed, LNA and filter and was able to successfully receive the GOES signal with an RTL-SDR and Airspy.

Now Lucas has uploaded his second post where he discusses how to demodulate the GOES signal. The GOES satellites transmit a Low-Rate Information Transmission (LRIT) signal which contains full disk images of the earth as well as other weather data from the secondary Emergency Managers Weather Information Network (EMWIN) signal.

In order to demodulate the signal Lucas wrote a BPSK demodulator in GNU Radio. His post goes into good technical detail and shows exactly how the demodulator is constructed. Basically the the BPSK signal is first decimated down to 2.5e6, normalized with an AGC, then cleaned up with a Root Raised Cosine Filter. From there the signal goes through a Costas Loop PLL to receover the carrier wave, then a Clock Recovery MM block to recover the symbol clock. The data is then output to a TCP pipe for the decoder.

In the upcoming third part of his article Lucas will show us how to actually turn the demodulated data into an image of the earth.

GOES LRIT Decoder
GOES LRIT Decoder

Setting up a GOES Weather Satellite Antenna System

Many people with an RTL-SDR have had fun receiving NOAA and METEOR low earth orbit (LEO) weather satellite images. However, a step up in difficulty is to try and receive the geostationary orbit (GEO) weather satellites like GOES. These satellites are locked to a fixed position in the sky meaning there is no need to do tracking, however since they are much further away than LEO satellites, they require a 1m+ satellite dish or high gain directional antenna to have a chance at receiving the weak signal. The GOES satellites transmit very nice high resolution full disk images of the earth, as well as lots of other weather data. For more information see this previous post where we showed devnulling’s GOES reception results, and this post where we showed @usa_satcom’s presentation on GOES and other satellites.

Over on his blog and Twitter account (@lucasteske) Lucas Teske has been documenting his work in building a GOES receive system. The SDR he uses mostly is an Airspy, but recently he showed that our RTL-SDR Blog V3 dongle is also capable at receiving the GOES signal.

The nice thing about Lucas’ post is that he documents his entire journey, including the failures. For example after discovering that he couldn’t find a 1.2m offset satellite dish which was recommended by the experts on #hearsat (starchat), he went with an alternative 1.5m prime focus dish. Then after several failed attempts at using a helix antenna feed, he discovered that his problem was related to poor illumination of the dish, which meant that in effect only a small portion of the dish was actually being utilized by the helix. He then tried a “cantenna”, with a linear feed inside and that worked much better. Lucas also discovered that he was seeing huge amounts of noise from the GSM band at 1800 MHz. Adding a filter solved this problem. For the LNA he uses an LNA4ALL.

To position the antenna Lucas used the Satellite AR app on his phone. This app overlays the position of the satellite on the phone camera making it easy to point the satellite dish correctly. He also notes that to improve performance you should experiment with the linear feeds rotation, and the distance from the dish. His post of full of tips like this which is very useful for those trying to receive GOES for the first time.

In future posts Lucas hopes to show the demodulation and decoding process.

GOES received with the dish, LNA4ALL, filter and an Airspy.
GOES signals received with the dish, LNA4ALL, filter and an Airspy.

The 20th Cyberspectrum Software Defined Radio Meetup

Every month SDR evangelist Balint Seeber hosts the Cyberspectrum Meetup in San Francisco, where many SDR fans come together to listen to various presentations. The 20th Cyberspectrum SDR meetup has now concluded, and the recorded video is available on YouTube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hPiUncCs6Lg

The talks this time include a very interesting talk by Joe Steinmetz (@usa_satcom) about decoding L-Band weather satellites such as NASA GOES. Previously we made a post regarding GOES where Reddit user devnulling showed his GOES reception setup. To save time, on the video Joe’s talk starts at 00:10:45.

This presentation will cover most aspects of receiving, demodulating and decoding current L-Band Weather Satellite signals (NOAA, MetOp, Meteor, FengYun, GOES). Topics will include hardware, software, de-modulation/decoding techniques, challenges, flows as well as cool sample images and data.

usa_satcom

 The second talk is titled “Disposable, Stealthy, Cheap SIGINT” is by Chris Kuethe, @kj6gve and delves into topics relating to low cost signal analysis. Chris’ talk starts at 1:45:00. The blurb reads:

This presentation covers some observations and considerations for using inexpensive and compact ARM boards for signals analysis.  Topics may include: power budget, air interface, attributability, performance tuning, lolcats and doges.

cheap_sigint