Tagged: std-c

Review: Outernet LNA and Patch Antenna

Recently we posted news that Outernet had released their 1.5 GHz LNA, Patch Antenna and E4000 Elonics RTL-SDR + E4000/LNA Bundle. When used together, the products can be used to receive the Outernet L-band satellite signal, as well as other decodable L-band satellite signals like AERO and Inmarsat STD-C EGC. Outernet is a new satellite service that aims to be a free “library in the sky”. They continuously broadcast services such as news, weather, videos and other files from satellites.

EDIT: For international buyers the Outernet store has now started selling these products at http://store.outernet.is.

A few days ago we received the LNA and patch antenna for review. The patch antenna is similar to the one we received a while ago when writing our STD-C EGC tutorial, although this one is now slightly larger. It is roughly 12 x 12 cm in size, 100g heavy and comes with about 13 cm of high quality RG316 coax cable with a right angled SMA male connector on the end. The coax cable is clamped on the back for effective strain relief.

The Outernet patch antenna and LNA
The Outernet patch antenna and LNA

The LNA is manufactured by NooElec for Outernet. It amplifies with 34 dB gain from 1525 – 1559 MHz, with its center frequency at 1542 MHz. It must be powered via a 3 – 5.5V bias tee and draws 25 mA. The package consists of a 5 x 2.5 cm PCB board with one female and one male SMA connector. The components are protected by a shielding can. Inside the shielding can we see a MAX12000 LNA chip along with a TA1405A SAW filter. The MAX12000 (datasheet here) is an LNA designed for GPS applications and has a NF of 1 dB. It has a design where there are two amplifiers embedded within the chip, and it allows you to connect a SAW filter in between them. The TA1405A SAW filter appears to be produced by Golledge (datasheet here), and it has about a 3 dB insertion loss.

The Outernet L-Band LNA
The Outernet L-Band LNA
Inside the Outernet LNA
Inside the Outernet LNA

We tested the patch and LNA together with one of our V3 RTL-SDR Blog dongles, with the bias tee turned on. The LNA was connected directly to the dongle, with no coax in between. The patch antenna was angled to point towards the Inmarsat satellite. A 5 meter USB extension cord was then used to interface with a PC. The images below demonstrate the performance we were able to get.

http://Outernet%20Signal

Outernet Signal

http://Outernet%20Signal%20with%204x%20Decimation

Outernet Signal with 4x Decimation

http://AERO

AERO

http://STD-C%20EGC

STD-C EGC

The Outernet team writes that a SNR level of only 2 dB is needed for decoding to work on their signal. With the patch and LNA we were able to get at least 12 dB so this is more than good enough. Other signals such as AERO and STD-C EGC also came in very strongly. Even when not angled at the satellite and placed flat on a table it was able to receive the signal with about 5 dB’s of SNR.

In conclusion the patch and LNA worked very well at receiving the Outernet signal as well as AERO and STD-C EGC. We think these products are great value for money if you are interested in these L-Band signals, and they make it very easy to receive. The only minor problem with the patch antenna is that there is no stand for it, which makes it difficult to mount in a way that faces the satellite. However this issue can easily be fixed with some sellotape and your own mount.

In the future once the Outernet Rpi3 OS and decoder image is released we hope to show a demonstration and tutorial on receiving Outernet data.

Review: Outernet LNA and Patch Antenna

Recently we posted news that Outernet had released their 1.5 GHz LNA, Patch Antenna and E4000 Elonics RTL-SDR + E4000/LNA Bundle. When used together, the products can be used to receive the Outernet L-band satellite signal, as well as other decodable L-band satellite signals like AERO and Inmarsat STD-C EGC. Outernet is a new satellite service that aims to be a free “library in the sky”. They continuously broadcast services such as news, weather, videos and other files from satellites.

EDIT: For international buyers the Outernet store has now started selling these products at http://store.outernet.is.

A few days ago we received the LNA and patch antenna for review. The patch antenna is similar to the one we received a while ago when writing our STD-C EGC tutorial, although this one is now slightly larger. It is roughly 12 x 12 cm in size, 100g heavy and comes with about 13 cm of high quality RG316 coax cable with a right angled SMA male connector on the end. The coax cable is clamped on the back for effective strain relief.

The Outernet patch antenna and LNA
The Outernet patch antenna and LNA

The LNA is manufactured by NooElec for Outernet. It amplifies with 34 dB gain from 1525 – 1559 MHz, with its center frequency at 1542 MHz. It must be powered via a 3 – 5.5V bias tee and draws 25 mA. The package consists of a 5 x 2.5 cm PCB board with one female and one male SMA connector. The components are protected by a shielding can. Inside the shielding can we see a MAX12000 LNA chip along with a TA1405A SAW filter. The MAX12000 (datasheet here) is an LNA designed for GPS applications and has a NF of 1 dB. It has a design where there are two amplifiers embedded within the chip, and it allows you to connect a SAW filter in between them. The TA1405A SAW filter appears to be produced by Golledge (datasheet here), and it has about a 3 dB insertion loss.

The Outernet L-Band LNA
The Outernet L-Band LNA
Inside the Outernet LNA
Inside the Outernet LNA

We tested the patch and LNA together with one of our V3 RTL-SDR Blog dongles, with the bias tee turned on. The LNA was connected directly to the dongle, with no coax in between. The patch antenna was angled to point towards the Inmarsat satellite. A 5 meter USB extension cord was then used to interface with a PC. The images below demonstrate the performance we were able to get.

http://Outernet%20Signal

Outernet Signal

http://Outernet%20Signal%20with%204x%20Decimation

Outernet Signal with 4x Decimation

http://AERO

AERO

http://STD-C%20EGC

STD-C EGC

The Outernet team writes that a SNR level of only 2 dB is needed for decoding to work on their signal. With the patch and LNA we were able to get at least 12 dB so this is more than good enough. Other signals such as AERO and STD-C EGC also came in very strongly. Even when not angled at the satellite and placed flat on a table it was able to receive the signal with about 5 dB’s of SNR.

In conclusion the patch and LNA worked very well at receiving the Outernet signal as well as AERO and STD-C EGC. We think these products are great value for money if you are interested in these L-Band signals, and they make it very easy to receive. The only minor problem with the patch antenna is that there is no stand for it, which makes it difficult to mount in a way that faces the satellite. However this issue can easily be fixed with some sellotape and your own mount.

In the future once the Outernet Rpi3 OS and decoder image is released we hope to show a demonstration and tutorial on receiving Outernet data.

Comparing Home Made Inmarsat Antennas

Over on his blog “coolsdrstuff”, the author has uploaded a new post showing his comparisons of various home made Inmarsat antennas. In his post he tests a tin can helix antenna, a 10-turn helix antenna, and a LHCP helix feed on a 81cm DirecTV dish.

His results show that the dish outperforms the helix antennas by a significant amount, but only once he took it outdoors. The 10-turn helix antenna also worked better than the tin can helix, although he found that it required very accurate pointing.

Inmarsat are geostaionary satellites that transmit signals on L-band at around 1.5 GHz. They transmit signals that can be decoded with an RTL-SDR, such as STD-C EGC (weather, messaging and safety messages for boats), as well as AERO (the satellite version of ACARS for aircraft).

Good Inmarsat reception with the dish.
Good Inmarsat reception with the dish.

Building an L-band helical antenna for Inmarsat

Previously in August of this year we wrote an article showing how to decode Inmarsat satellite STD-C NCS EGC messages with an RTL-SDR. Inspired by this article, RTL-SDR.com reader Mario Filippi, N2HUN has written in to show us how he built an L-band helical antenna to receive these signals. A helical antenna is one of the better choices for receiving Inmarsat signals as it will provide higher gain when compared to a patch antenna, however the disadvantage is that it is much larger. Of related interest, Adam 9A4QV also recently showed us a video detailing the correct dimensions for building an air gap patch antenna.

Mario’s Inmarsat antenna consists of a 90cm Ku band dish, a homebrew L-band LHCP helical antenna and an inline amplifier. He used the assembly instructions found on UHF Satcom’s page at http://www.uhf-satcom.com/lband and scavenged most of the parts from his junk box. To help others with the construction of a similar antenna Mario has also created a document detailing the construction of the antenna with several useful build images (.docx file).

Helical Inmarsat antenna feed for a 90cm Ku band dish
Helical Inmarsat antenna feed for a 90cm Ku band dish

Mario has also recently given a presentation about the RTL-SDR to the Mid Atlantic States VHF Conference entitled “SDR Dongle for VHF/UHF Reception”. The presentation is an overview of the RTL-SDR dongle and many of its interesting applications, including several screenshots of software in action (dropbox) (mega mirror).

Building and Testing an L-Band Patch antenna for Inmarsat-C Reception

Over on YouTube Adam 9A4QAV (creator of the LNA4ALL and other RTL-SDR related products) has uploaded two videos showing his home made L-band patch antenna in action receiving Inmarsat-C and in the second video describing the construction of the antenna. Inmarsat is a geostationary satellite service that provides services such as satellite phone communications, broadband internet, and short text and data messaging services. Some of the messages on the Inmarsat STD-C NCS EGC channel are marine safety messages that are decodable with an RTL-SDR. This was discussed in our tutorial that we posted back in August. In that tutorial we used a prototype patch antenna that was supplied by Outernet.

Adam’s home made L-band patch antenna consists of two thin sheets of conductive metal, cut to the right dimensions which are described in the second video. We have recorded the dimensions here (though be sure to double check with the video for correctness):

Reflector Size: 170 mm x 170 mm
Patch Size: 98 mm x 98 mm
Corner Trim: 21 mm from top right and bottom left corners
Coax Connection (Probe): 25 mm from bottom edge
Height of patch from reflector: 7 mm

The corners of the patch need to be trimmed to give the patch antenna right hand circular polarization (RHCP), which is the polarization used by Inmarsat Satellites. 

The first video shows the patch in action with Inmarsat-C being received. In this video he also uses a simple downconverter to shift the 1.5 GHz Inmarsat-C frequency down to 300 MHz, which avoids the problem of the RTL-SDR not working very well at 1.5 GHz and above. In the second video Adam explains the dimensions of the antenna.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AvVlOQMBCBQ
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OY0hvWsH-mg