Measuring Broadcast FM Multipath Distortion with an RTL-SDR

Over on GitHub user jj1bdx has just released a new tool called rtl_power-fm-multipath which can be used for estimating broadcast FM multipath distortion with an RTL-SDR. Broadcast FM multipath is caused when a signal is received from multiple directions due to it reflecting off and refracting through physical objects like buildings and terrain. As the reflected/refracted signals will be delayed it can cause echo like distortions in the RF signal which can cause issues like poor digital decoding, poor FM audio reception and ghosting in analogue video.

The multipath distortion estimation method works by measuring the ratio of the strength of direct/reflected radio waves which results in the desired/undesired (D/U) ratio. This measurement method was proposed by Komiya87 and JushinFM who both wrote papers in Japanese describing the method. In summary the methodology is:

  • Measure the maximum peak strength for +-50kHz spectrum of the target FM station
  • Obtain the maximum value (Lmax) and minimum value (Lmin) within the spectrum
  • Obtain the ratio of the maximum and minimum values L = Lmax / Lmin (note: Lmax and Lmin are real values (not in dB), and L must be > 1)
  • The estimated D/U ratio R = (L+1) / (L-1) (in the real value, not in dB)

The rtl_power-fm-multipath program is based on rtl_power and works by using rtl_power to record power measurements for 5 minutes, then sending the data to a peakhold function which computes the maximum power value for each frequency, and then calculations the distortion ratio.

An example of Multipath Distortion on a DAB+ Signal. From Gough Lui's post https://goughlui.com/2015/03/28/trip-to-hk-cn-2014-part-5-rtl-sdr-more-radio-ais-night-photos/
An example of Multipath Distortion on a DAB+ Signal. From Gough Lui's post at https://goughlui.com/2015/03/28/trip-to-hk-cn-2014-part-5-rtl-sdr-more-radio-ais-night-photos

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