Over on YouTube user Ejo Schrama has uploaded a short video showing a demonstration of radio frequency interference (RFI) from various Arduino based devices he’s built. The interference comes from the local oscillators within the devices which are common to many electronic devices. He writes in the video description:
RFI simply means that there is a part in the radio spectrum that we wouldn’t like to see, it is usually unintentionally caused by devices around us (computers, televisions, radios, clocks, watches, etc etc) that carry local oscillators which are low power transmitters. Sometimes it is caused by illegal transmissions, so a deliberate action.
The oscillators of devices around us oftentimes feed digital circuits, sine wave become block wave, as a result higher order harmonics of the block wave pollute the spectrum. If your receiver is sensitive enough then you will pick up the RFI at some point.
In this video I’m two meter away from an antenna and I tuned the receiver to 48 MHz which is the 3rd harmonic of the 16 MHz oscillator used by all nearby Arduino experiments. Lets see what the spectrum does by turning on and off some arduino’s. The worst RFI generator was a 16 MHz atmel 328p multiplexing four 7-segment LEDs displaying the value of a IR temperature sensor. But also a nearby clock experiment clearly caused some RFI.
The receiver that I used was an airspy, and I’ve put the decimation factor high enough to get some resolution in the spectrum. The frequency offset between the different arduino’s is clearly visible. This is caused by the fact that cheap quartz oscillators are used, their accuracy is usually around 100 ppm, and this mostly determines a frequency bias.
Nowadays it is very difficult to clean up your local shortwave spectrum. For this reason reception conditions under 30 MHz and even 2 meter nowadays face the RFI problem. Only when we go to UHF frequencies like 430 MHz, better known as the the 70 cm amateur band, the RFI problem sort of disappears, apparently because higher harmonics have become insignificant.
I do not think that a lot of effort is put into keeping LW, HF but also VHF spectra clean, the worst violators are usually tracked down but only when many listeners start to complain.