Tagged: rtl2832u

Vancouver Broadcasts Hospital Patient Data Over Unencrypted Wireless Pagers

Canadian based researchers from the "Open Privacy Research Society" recently rang the alarm on Vancouver based hospitals who have been broadcasting patient data in the clear over wireless pagers for several years. These days almost all radio enthusiasts know that with a cheap RTL-SDR, or any other radio, it is possible to receive pager signals, and decode them using a program called PDW. Pager signals are completely unencrypted, so anyone can read the messages being sent, and they often contain sensitive pager data.

Open Privacy staff disclosed their findings in 2018, but after no action was taken for over a year they took their findings to a journalist.

Encryption is available for pagers, but upgrading the network and pagers to support it can be costly. Pagers are also becoming less common in the age of mobile phones, but they are still commonly used in hospitals in some countries due to their higher reliability and range.

In the past we've seen several similar stories, such as this previous post where patient data was being exposed over the pager network in Kansas City, USA. There was also an art installation in New York called Holypager, that continuously printed out all pager messages that were received with a HackRF for gallery patrons to read.

HolyPager Art Installation. HackRF One, Antenna and Raspberry Pi seen under the shelf.
HolyPager Art Installation. HackRF One, Antenna and Raspberry Pi seen under the shelf.

Decoding the ARES Train Protocol with an RTL-SDR

Over on YouTube user JellyImages has uploaded a video demonstrating his Windows based ARESrcvr software. ARES is a railway control communications protocol used by some trains in the USA. His code connects to an RTL-SDR dongle, and demodulates the ARES protocol, providing decoded packets to ATSCMon via UDP on localhost.

ATSCMon allows you to view train telemetry data, and see on a rail map where that control indication came from. It appears that ATSCMon actually already supports ARES decoding via audio piping, but the decoder by JellyImages is a cleaner solution that doesn't require audio piping. In the past we've posted about one other YouTube user whose uploaded videos on using ATSCMon to monitor trains [Post 1][Post 2].

JellyImages also notes that his software only supports the ARES protocol which is used mostly around former Burlington Northern (BN) territory in the USA.

Introducing ARESrcvr

YouTube Video: Reverse Engineering with SDR

Over on YouTube Black Hills Information Security (aka Paul Clark) has uploaded a one hour long presentation that shows how to use a software defined radio to reverse engineer digital signals using GNU Radio.

One of the most common uses of Software Defined Radio in the InfoSec world is to take apart a radio signal and extract its underlying digital data. The resulting information is often used to build a transmitter that can compromise the original system. In this webcast, you'll walk through a live demo that illustrates the basic steps in the RF reverse engineering process, including:

- tuning
- demodulation
- decoding
- determining bit function
- building your own transmitter
- and much, much more!

Reverse Engineering with SDR

NanoVNASaver Software Walkthrough + NanoVNA Firmware Updates Bring 1.5 GHz Max Range

The NanoVNA is an open source VNA project by @edy555 and ttrftech that has recently become extremely affordable at less than US$50 for a fully assembled unit thanks to Chinese manufacturing (or a little more if you order it via Amazon).

Ohan Smit had recently been playing with the NanoVNA and came across a software package from Rune B. Broberg (5Q5R) called NanoVNASaver. NanoVNASaver is an open source program that can be used to read and plot data from the NanoVNA. It has some nice features like the ability to display multiple charts, increase the resolution up to 10k points, measure cable length via TDR calculations, save Touchstone files and more.

Over on his blog, Ohan has put up a walkthrough guide about using NanoVNASaver. He shows how to setup the application, calibrate the NanoVNA, and then demonstrates how to use NanoVNASaver to measure the response of some filters.

Testing our RTL-SDR.COM BCFM Bandstop filter with a NanoVNA and the NanoVNASaver Software.
Testing our RTL-SDR.COM BCFM Bandstop filter with a NanoVNA and the NanoVNASaver Software.

Later in the same post Ohan also includes an update about his experiments with some new experimental NanoVNA firmware that extends the maximum frequency range from the previous maximum of 900 MHz up to 1500 MHz. Results show that while it can work up to 1500 MHz, accuracy rapidly degrades above 900 MHz.

 

SDRSharp Community Plugin Package Now Available

The SDR# developer in conjunction with Rodrigo Pérez have recently endorsed and released a "community plugin package" over on the SDR# downloads page. This consists of a SDR# installer that automatically downloads and installs a whole plethora of SDR# plugins.

In addition to the plugins it also automatically installs the RTL-SDR drivers, and the RTL-SDR (R820T) special interface which has the ability to use decimation and has individual controls for each of the three gain stages. You can also use it to automatically install the LimeSDR and PlutoSDR interfaces.

The .exe is a simple installer and you can select what plugins you want during the install. The installer automatically puts the SDRSharp folder in the C: drive.

SDRSharp Community Plugin Package
SDRSharp Community Plugin Package

The plugins included are:

  • Base Windows SDR Software Package (same as above)
  • Plugin Audio Processor
  • Plugin Audio Recorder
  • Plugin AUX VFO
  • Plugin Avia band 8.33 calculator
  • Plugin Baseband Recorder
  • Plugin Calico CAT
  • Plugin CTCSS decoder squelch
  • Plugin DCS decoder squelch
  • Plugin DDE Tracker
  • Plugin Digital Audio Processor
  • Plugin DSDtcp
  • Plugin File Player
  • Plugin Frequency Lock
  • Plugin Frequency Manager
  • Plugin Frequency Scanner
  • Plugin Gpredict Connector
  • Plugin IF Processor
  • Plugin IF Recorder
  • Plugin Level Meter
  • Plugin LimeSDR
  • Plugin Meteor Demodulator
  • Plugin MPX Output
  • Plugin PAL/Secam TV
  • Plugin Pluto SDR
  • Plugin RTL-SDR 820T
  • Plugin SDRSharp Net Remote
  • Plugin Time Shift

WWV and WWVH Special Messages to Broadcast!

Starting from Monday September 16th and continuing through to October 1st, both WWV and WWVH shortwave time signal transmission stations will broadcast a special message from the Department of Defense to mark the centennial of WWV. These messages will be heard on 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 MHz. In addition from September 28 to October 2 a special WWV event will occur:

The world’s oldest radio station, WWV, turns 100 years on October 1, 2019, and we are celebrating!

From September 28 through October 2, 2019, the Northern Colorado ARC and WWV ARC, along with help from RMHam, FCCW, and operators from across the country, are planning 24-hour operations of special event station WW0WWV on CW, SSB and digital modes. Operations will shift between HF bands following normal propagation changes and will include 160m and 6m meteor scatter. We will be operating right at the WWV site and face a challenging RF environment.

WWV is a [NIST] operated HF station based in Fort Collins, Colorado. It continuously broadcasts a continuous Universal Coordinated Time signal in addition to occasional voice announcements. It has been on the air since 1919 but began continuous broadcasts in 1945 from it’s final site in Fort Collins, Colorado. WWVH is a similar time signal, but based in Hawaii.

The WWV Transmit Building

The WWV time signal can be used to automatically set RF enabled clocks to the correct time. [Andreas Spiess] on YouTube recently uploaded a video where he emulates this signal in order to control clocks within his home. This is a great watch if you’d like to learn more about how these time signals work.

The time format itself is actually pretty simple and it’s possible to emulate with a number of devices from an Arduino to Raspberry Pi and of course Software Defined Radio.

Remote Controller for Clocks (IKEA and others, DCF77, WWVB, MSF, JJY)

Testing a PCB Patch Antenna and Radiosonde QFH Antenna for Inmarsat and Iridium Reception

Over on his YouTube channel Tech Minds has been testing some antennas for Inmarsat and Iridium L-Band satellite reception. Inmarsat is a satellite service that runs on geostationary satellites, and one can be received from almost anywhere in the world. There are various services, but the ones that are easily decodable are STD-C EGC and AERO. EGC contains text information search and rescue (SAR) and coast guard messages as well as news, weather and incident reports, and AERO is a form of satellite ACARS, and typically contains short messages from aircraft.

In the first video Tech Minds tests what appears to be an as of yet unreleased prototype PCB patch antenna being designed by NooElec. The PCB patch antenna is combined with a SAWBird Inmarsat LNA and an RTL-SDR. With it he's able to receive STD-C and AERO signals.

In the second video Tech Minds tests an L-Band QFH antenna salvaged from a Vaisala weather balloon radiosonde. The QFH is designed for GPS frequencies, but can potentially be used at the slightly higher Inmarsat and Iridium frequencies. Tech Minds combines the QFH antenna with a SAWBird Inmarsat LNA, but unfortunately finds that reception is too weak for any AERO decoding to be possible. However, when used on the higher Iridium frequencies the antenna works well, and he's able to decode packets with Iridium Toolkit.

New Inmarsat Antenna from NooElec

Testing A QFH Antenna For Inmarsat And Iridium

RTL-SDR Blog L-Band Patch Antenna Preview

We note that over the last several months we have been working on our own L-band patch antenna that will cover Inmarsat, GPS and Iridium frequencies all in one. We expect manufacturing to be completed near the end of the month, or early next month.

The antenna is a ceramic patch, and will come in a waterproof enclosure. It will be possible to easily mount the antenna on a window or elsewhere using the standard suction cup and bendy legs tripod included with our dipole kits. Target price is US$39.95 including the suction cup, tripod, 2M coax and shipping, but we may have it initially on sale for a lower price.

This is cheaper than buying an Inmarsat & Iridium LNA, but a bit more than the SDR-Kits patches that they brought out a few weeks ago. Although performance of our patch is much better. Keep an eye out for the initial information post coming in the next few days.

RTL-SDR Blog L-Band Patch Preview (RTL-SDR for Scale)
RTL-SDR Blog L-Band Patch Preview (RTL-SDR for Scale)

A Wall Mounted SatNOGS Ground Station Monitor

If you weren't already aware,  SatNOGS is an open source project that aims to make it easy for volunteers to build and run RF ground stations (typically based on RTL-SDR hardware) that automatically monitor satellite data, and upload that data to the internet for public access. This is very useful for low budget cubesats launched by schools/small organizations that don't have the resources for a worldwide monitoring network as data can be collected from all over the world no matter where the satellite is.

Over on the SatNOGS Libre Space forums, user cshields have posted about his near wall mounted SatNOGS monitoring station. With the station he's able to monitor the status of his SatNOGS station via an LCD screen and see the location of satellites that next in the queue to be received. There are also some status lights and LCD text screen for monitoring the SatNOGS rotator hardware.

The station consists of a Raspberry Pi 4, 7" LCD display, 500 GB SSD, RTL-SDR Blog V3, and an Arduino with 16x2 LCD and NeoPixel. cshields post covers the full details of the build.

[Also seen on Hackaday]

SatNOGS Ground Station Monitor
SatNOGS Ground Station Monitor