Over on YouTube Adam 9A4QV has uploaded a video of him testing out his 'UP-64' upconverter together with an RTL-SDR. An upconverter moves low frequencies 'up' into a higher frequency. This is useful for HF reception, as normal reception on an RTL-SDR starts at about 24 MHz (without using direct sampling mode).
Adam previously manufactured and sold his UP-100 upconverter, which was an upconverter of his own design that utilized a 100 MHz oscillator. These days it has been accepted that using an upconversion frequency that avoids the broadcast FM band is generally better as it avoids the interference that can come from very strong FM signals. The 64 MHz oscillator on the UP-64 avoids the broadcast FM band for the most part unlike the older UP-100.
Last year KD0CQ discovered that the SUP-2400 is a cheap $5 – $10 DirecTV (US satellite TV) module which can be hand modded into a downconverter for the RTL-SDR. A downconverter allows you to listen to frequencies above the maximum frequency range of the RTL-SDR by converting frequencies down into a range receivable by the RTL-SDR (or of course any other SDR). The modified SUP-2400 allows to you listen up to just over 4 GHz.
The SUP-2400 modification is moderately involved and requires soldering and desoldering SMD pieces, so this product is great for anyone who just wants a cheap and low cost downconverter which is ready to go. And at $25 USD it’s still very good value. Shipping within the USA is $7.75, and internationally it is about $13.50.
Qrp Gaijin’s post goes into some detail about his circuit and shows the schematic as well. He also shows the results with an active loop antenna, RTL-SDR and the upconverter in some videos. In the email to us he also notes that his upconverter is still a work in progress as the LO is quite noisy and he suspects that it may be too weak to drive the 1N4148 based diode ring mixer. There is also no filtering on the circuit yet, so there is some broadcast FM breakthrough.
Another project he worked on was attempting the direct sampling mod on a standard RTL-SDR. However, Qrp Gaijin’s method is slightly different to most attempts as instead of soldering the wires into the Q-branch holes he simply uses hot glue to hold them mechanically in place. This may be an idea to consider for those who want to attempt the mod on a standard RTL-SDR, but don’t have any soldering tools or experience.
Back in 2016 KD0CQ discovered that a $5 DirectTV device with model name SUP-2400 could be used as a downconverter with an RTL-SDR for receiving frequencies of up to 4.5 GHz. A downconverter is a device that converts high frequencies such as 4.5 GHz down into a frequency actually receivable by the RTL-SDR. The SUP-2400 is able to be modified into a useful downconverter by opening it up and manually removing some mixing harmonic filters.
Over on YouTube user Full spectrum technician has uploaded an interested video where he shows how he used a beam deflection tube to create an upconverter for his RTL-SDR. A beam deflection tube is a type of vacuum tube that can be used as a mixer. If you aren’t aware, a vacuum tube (a.k.a tube or valve) is an electrical component that was used in electrical equipment heavily back in the first half of the 1900’s. They could be used to implement circuits like amplifiers, mixers, switches, oscillators and more. Even today they are still used in some high end audio equipment because many people believe they produce superior audio quality. Full spectrum technician writes on his video:
A simple test using a 6ME8 beam deflection tube as a balanced mixer up converter for an RTL-SDR to enable HF reception.
The only problem I had was too much conversion gain. Even with a relatively short antenna, and literally starving the tube for voltage, the signal output levels were high enough that I had to crank back the gain of the RTL SDR and/or use padding on the input of the RTL-SDR.
The LO was feed to grid 1 for common mode input. The antenna was feed to the two deflection plates via a transformer as a differential input. The output was taken from the two anode plates via a transformer as a differential output.
That resulted in the LO balancing it’s self out on the output so that the LO would not overload the front end of the receiver.
Operating voltages at the time were.. 20V anode. 5V deflection plates. 20V accelerator grid. Cathode tied to ground.
Earlier in June YouTube user T3CHNOTURK posted a video demonstrating him receiving signals above the maximum 1.7 GHz range of the RTL-SDR by using a modified SUP-2400 downconverter. Back in April it was discovered by KD0CQ that a $5 DirecTV SUP-2400 circuit could be modified and turned into a downconverter for use with the RTL-SDR.
Now T3CHNOTURK has uploaded a new video showing more demonstrations of the RTL-SDR + SUP-2400 combo in action. This time he adds a PGA-103 based LNA to boost the signal strength, which gives him better effective range. In the video he shows reception of a wireless keyboard once again, and then goes on to show him receiving 2.4 GHz analog PAL video using the RTL-SDR program TVSharp. The picture is not particularly clear, but it is a decent demonstration.
Back in April we posted about how KD0CQ found that he could receive signals up to 4.5 GHz with an RTL-SDR by using a $5 downconverter for DirecTV called the SUP-2400. The RTL-SDR can only receive up to a maximum frequency of about 1.7 GHz, but the SUP-2400 downconverter can be modified to convert frequencies at around 2.4 GHz down into a range receivable by the RTL-SDR.
When we first posted the story the instructions for modifying the SUP-2400 to use as a downconverter weren’t uploaded yet, but they are now. The modification requires decent soldering skills as it involves desoldering a few small SMD components and bridging some points with wires.
Over on YouTube user T3CHNOTURK has uploaded a video showing the downconverter in action. With the SUP-2400 downconverter and RTL-SDR he is able to receive some WiFi at 2.447 GHz as well as signals from a wireless keyboard at 2.465 GHz
The secret to doing this cheaply is revealed by KD0CQ. He shows that a very cheap $5 Directv SUP-2400upconverter can be converted into a 2.4 GHz downconverter simply by removing some filters. He writes that he hasn’t uploaded the full set of steps to modify the SUP-2400 yet, but he intends to do so in the near future.
There is also a discussion about this mod on Reddit. Several posters have been discussing what applications a cheap downconverter could open up. Some mentioned applications include receiving various satellites in the C/S bands, DECT cordless phones @ 1.9 GHz, SiriusXM satellite radio @ 2.3 GHz, ISM @ 2.4 GHz, RADARs, RC aircraft control/telemetry/video and ham beacons.