Over on YouTube we've recently discovered a live stream by channel Information Zulu that has created a virtual live 24hr view of LAX airport air traffic by piping ADS-B data into a flight simulator game. The stream also combines this with live air traffic audio and arrivals and departures information. Other videos on his channel show highlights like go arounds.
We're not sure what he's using to pipe ADS-B data into the simulator or exactly what simulator this is, but in the video description he notes that he uses a Pi 4, RTL-SDR blog V3 with ADS-B LNA, and an AirNav antenna to receive the ADS-B data.
During the recent George Floyd BLM protests police and military aircraft have been playing a large part in the surveillance of protestors. All these aircraft are required to transmit ADS-B which of course can be monitored with an RTL-SDR or other SDR. Many volunteers around the world use RTL-SDRs to upload ADS-B data to an online aggregation service, so flight data from all over the world can be accessed in one place. However, most ADS-B aggregation services like FlightAware and FlightRadar24 censor police and military aircraft from the raw ADS-B data received from the RTL-SDRs. ADS-B Exchange is the only service that has a policy to not censor any aircraft.
As mentioned in a previous post, ADS-B Exchange recently updated their interface and backend, and they now run tar1090, which is a fully featured ADS-B mapping platform that can display the historical tracks of any tracked aircraft.
We also note that on Twitter John Wiseman @lemonodor also runs several "advisory circular bots" that make use of ADS-B Exchange data to automatically tweet a notification when aircraft are detected as having a circular flight path.
Back in March we posted about "OpenEar" which was a newly released Windows TETRA decoder for RTL-SDR dongles. Back then the author "moneriomaa" noted that he planned to add several new modes. In the release that is currently available, OpenEar now supports TETRA, DMR, Pocsag, ADS-B as well as standard AM and NFM modes. We tested the software, and all modes appear to decode as advertised. In the future the author plans to add more modes such as MPT-1327 and AERO.
In the previous post we added an update noting that OpenEar appeared to be violating the GPL licence of OsmocomTETRA, and the author noted that he would remove the TETRA functionality until licencing was resolved. As TETRA decoding is back in the recent releases we assume these legal issues have been solved.
In the current release you also need to provide your own rtlsdr.dll file, which can be obtained from your SDR# folder, or directly from the Osmocom windows release (rename librtlsdr.dll to rtlsdr.dll).
Thank you to Mario Filippi (N2HUN, WQWL238) for submitting news about his latest article that has been published in the March 2020 edition of The Spectrum Monitor magazine. The article is titled "The ABCs of ADS-B and Airband Reception using Software Defined Radio", with the description reading:
Ever wonder about all the planes you see in the sky overhead where you live? What flight is that; where is it going; how high and how fast is it? All of these planes transmit on one frequency: 1090 MHz and you can monitor them all as Mario shows us. He tells us what receiver to use, which antenna (hint: you can build a better ADS-B antenna than you can buy), which software to use and how to assemble your own desktop virtual radar screen.
The article isn't free to access as it's published in the Spectrum Monitor magazine, however the magazine only costs $3 and contains a number of other airband related articles too.
The KerberosSDR is our 4-channel phase coherent capable RTL-SDR unit that we previously crowdfunded back in 2018. With a 4-channel phase coherent RTL-SDR interesting applications like radio direction finding, passive radar and beam forming become possible. KerberosSDR is currently available from the Othernet store and Hacker Warehouse for US$149.95.
Although the KerberosSDR was mostly created to help unlock projects requiring phase coherency, we've had interest from multiple users asking for information on how to use the KerberosSDR as a tool for monitoring multiple separate signals at once.
Doing this is actually very simple. If you ignore the extra circuitry to make the KerberosSDR phase coherent, the KerberosSDR is at it's core just 4 separate RTL-SDR dongles connected to a quality USB hub. So if you're not using our coherent demo software, then plugging a KerberosSDR into a PC or single board PC will result in four RTL-SDR dongles that can be accessed individually.
The tutorial below could also be done with four individual RTL-SDR dongles, but you would also want to have a reliable powered USB hub.
Example Aviation Radio Monitor
Below we show an example tutorial of how the KerberosSDR could be used as a 4-channel aviation monitor for monitoring air traffic control, ADS-B, ACARS and VDL2 simultaneously on a single Raspberry Pi 3B+. The video below shows a demo.
KerberosSDR Monitoring Air Traffic Control Voice, ADS-B, ACARS & VDL2 on a Raspberry Pi 3 B+
The first step is to simply burn the latest Raspbian Buster to an SD Card, and set up your WiFi wpa_supplicant file as you would on any standard Raspbian install. Also add a blank file called "SSH" or "SSH.txt" to the boot directly to enable an SSH connection. Alternatively you could set this up with a monitor. We used Raspbian Buster Lite, as we are not intending to use the desktop GUI.
Next use PuTTY or your preferred terminal software to connect to your Raspberry Pi via SSH. You may need to use your routers config software/page to find the IP address of the Raspberry Pi. The default SSH port is 22.
Finally, update the repos on your install before continuing with the software installation process.
Here we connected a single quarterwave ground plane antenna tuned to the airband frequencies to three input ports on the KerberosSDR via a cheap RF TV splitter. The fourth antenna input was to a RadarBox ADS-B antenna.
The KerberosSDR and Raspberry Pi are powered via two official Raspberry Pi 5V plug packs, and the KerberosSDR is connected to the Pi via a single short high quality USB cable.
RTLSDR-Airband is an efficient command line based scanner program for the RTL-SDR. It works by rapidly scanning over a set of frequencies and looking for active signals, and playing the active AM or FM transmission. When an active signal is found it can be configured to stream the audio to an Icecast server, record to a file, or to play directly to your speakers. Alternatively you can also configure it to stream multiple channels simultaneously. If set up to stream to an Icecast server you can listen to the scanned audio from any device on your network with an internet browser.
Here we will use RTL-Airband to scan the air traffic control voice bands which are used by air traffic controllers and pilots to communicate by voice with one another. The transmissions are in AM and are found between 118–136.975 MHz.
First install the pre-requisites, and then install RTL-Airband.
sudo apt-get install -y build-essential libmp3lame-dev libshout3-dev libconfig++-dev libraspberrypi-dev librtlsdr-dev
wget -O RTLSDR-Airband-3.0.1.tar.gz https://github.com/szpajder/RTLSDR-Airband/archive/v3.0.1.tar.gz
tar xvfz RTLSDR-Airband-3.0.1.tar.gz
sudo make install
Next install an Icecast server onto your Raspberry Pi. This will allow us to connect to the Pi via a web browser to listen in to the audio.
sudo apt-get install icecast2 -y
The install steps will ask you to input admin passwords of your choice, make sure you remember or write these down.
Now edit the rtl_airband.conf file with:
sudo nano /usr/local/etc/rtl_airband.conf
Paste in the configuration below making sure to set the actual frequencies used by air traffic control and airlines in your particular area by adding or removing frequencies from the "freqs" line.
Also be sure to set the "index" to whatever antenna input you have used (0 - 3) on your KerberosSDR for your VHF air band antenna. You may want to experiment with the gain value, but for now you can leave it as default.
If you are using another template for the config file, ensure that the "correction" value is set to 0 as the KerberosSDR uses a TCXO and requires no PPM correction.
Finally, don't forget to also set the Icecast server password that you set up in the previous step, making sure to leave the username as "source".
type = "rtlsdr";
index = 2;
gain = 32;
correction = 0;
mode = "scan";
freqs = ( 118.1, 118.7, 119.5 );
labels = ( "Tower A", "Tower B", "Tower Control");
type = "icecast";
server = "127.0.0.1";
port = 8000;
mountpoint = "stream.mp3";
name = "Airband Voice";
genre = "ATC";
description = "My local airport - aggregated feed";
username = "source";
password = "kerberos";
send_scan_freq_tags = false;
Next set up the Icecast server if required using the instructions here. If the default port and number of source is fine for you, you can leave everything as default.
Now to start RTL-Airband run:
sudo rtl_airband -f
To listen to the scanned audio, browse to http://RASPI_IP_ADDRESS:8000/stream.mp3 on any device connected to the same network
Leave the RTL-Airband PuTTy window open, and open a new instance of PuTTy and once again connect to the Raspberry Pi in a new session. We will install the FlightAware branch of dump1090, as this is the most up to date version. dump1090 allows you to track aircraft that are transmitted ADS-B.
Now we can run dump1090 with the following line. Make sure to set the "--device 3" flag to the antenna input that you have connected your ADS-B antenna to. In our case we connected it to the last SMA input which is input 3.
./dump1090 --device 3 --interactive --net
Now to view the data on a map, you can install Virtual Radar Server on any Windows PC on the same network. Once installed, add an "AVR or Beast Raw Feed" receiver, with the IP address of your Raspberry Pi and Port 30002.
Again, leave both PuTTy windows open, and open a new PuTTy SSH terminal and connect again. Here we'll install ACARSDeco2 which is a multiband ACARS decoder. ACARS is an acronym for Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System which is a digital communications system that aircraft use to send and receive short messages to and from ground stations. Most messages are unreadable telemetry data intended for computers, but often you will see messages about weather, wind, dangerous cargo warnings, fuel loading information and more.
ACARSDeco2 is not an open source program, so you'll need to first download the compressed file from http://xdeco.org/?page_id=30 on a PC. Make sure to get the Raspberry Pi 2/3 version of ACARSdeco2 for Stretch.
Now use a program like WinSCP to transfer the .tgz file to the Raspberry Pi. In WinSCP select SCP as the file transfer protocol, log in with "pi/raspberry" and drag the file over to the Pi's home folder.
Then back on the Raspberry Pi, simply move the file into it's own folder, and extract the files.
mv acarsdeco2_rpi2-3_debian9_20181201.tgz acarsdeco2
tar -xvzf acarsdeco.tgz
Now you can run the program with the following command. Make sure to specify the ACARS frequencies used in your area if they are different. Also here we used antenna input 1 for the ACARS antenna and specified that with "--device-index 1". If you are running Virtual Radar Server on your Windows PC as explained in the dump1090 install, you can enter the Windows VRS server IP address, so that location data will be sent back to the ACARSdeco2 server.
Now on your Windows PC, open a browser and open PI_IP_ADDR:8081 to view the incoming ACARS messages.
Again, leave both PuTTy windows open, and open a new PuTTy SSH terminal and connect again. Here we will install dumpvdl2 which is a VDL2 decoder. VDL2 is a replacement for the aging ACARS system which is being phased out in some areas. In some areas VDL2 is now more common than ACARS, and in some areas it's the opposite.
Dumpvdl2 requires libacars to work, so install libacars first:
git clone https://github.com/szpajder/libacars
sudo make install
Finally, install dumpvdl2
git clone https://github.com/szpajder/dumpvdl2.git
sudo make install
Now to run dumpvdl2:
dumpvdl2 --rtlsdr 2 --gain 35
dumpvdl2 has no webserver so it can only be viewed from the terminal window.
Stations in the USA could replace one program with dump978, which decodes UAT positional data from smaller aircraft. If you live near a glider range, a FLARM decoder could also be used. You could also run an AIS receiver if you live near a water way.
If setting this up as a permanent station, you might want to go ahead and create a startup script that runs these programs on boot. Then you won't need to open up PuTTy terminals to start all the programs. The easiest way to do this is to use the @reboot code in crontab to run your script. Be sure to use sudo crontab -e for running RTL-Airband as this requires root.
Over in our store we're currently selling a RadarBox branded bundle that includes an ADS-B optimized antenna with 10 meters of coax, AND an ADS-B 1090 MHz optimized RTL-SDR dongle. RadarBox24 is an ADS-B aggregation flight tracking service similar to other services like FlightRadar24 and FlightAware. The set is RadarBox branded, but of course can be used with any tracking service, or just for your own private ADS-B station.
The bundle is now on sale for US$39.95 + shipping! The sale will last until stock runs out and this sale is only available from us. At other places like Amazon it is currently selling for US$64.95.
To purchase please visit our store and scroll down to find the RadarBox bundle "Add to Cart" button.
The antenna has 7 dBi gain, 50 (+-5) Ohm impedance, and is made from fiberglass and aluminum. It is fully waterproof and outdoor rated with 10 meters of coax cable and includes mounting clamps. The RadarBox RTL-SDR is specifically optimized for 1090 MHz ADS-B reception with it's built in filter and low noise amplifier.
The bundle ships out once per week and tracking is provided 1-2 days after shipping.
It takes decoded ADS-B data via a Virtual Radar Server webpage, so it should be fairly easy to set up together with an RTL-SDR and dump1090 that feeds Virtual Radar Server. The latest version displays a radar screen with decay-like effect, a list of currently detected aircraft, and a pixelated screen of the aircraft image downloaded from the internet.
Reddit user [Bobcalamarie] recently [posted] about how he uses his car dash mounted Android tablet along with an RTL-SDR Blog V3 and a magnetic mount antenna while sitting in traffic to track aircraft overhead.
We’ve seen something similar to this once before when [Signals Everywhere] uploaded a video showing off ADS-B reception (among other things) to a dash-mounted Windows tablet and an Android head unit.
The software used by Bobcalamarie is the Android [Avare ADS-B] software which can be found in the Google Play Store. However, other applications exist for Windows, Linux, and other operating systems as well. Some software such as [Virtual Radar Server] even allows you to set-up alerts for specific types of aircraft. Which while we wouldn’t condone it, it might come in handy for someone in traffic.
What would you do if you had an SDR installed in your vehicle? We would love to hear what you have to say in the comments below.