Make magazine has recently released a tutorial and uploaded a video showing a nice overview on how to get an RTL-SDR set up for ADS-B decoding on a BeagleBone Black embedded Linux computer. In the tutorial and video they show you the parts you will need and show you how to compile and install the RTL-SDR drivers and dump1090 ADS-B decoder on the BeagleBone.
ADS-B decoding allows you to receive GPS and other information from aircraft in your vicinity. We also have a tutorial about ADS-B decoding available here.
The BeagleBone Black is a small embedded Linux computer, similar to the Raspberry Pi. It has enough computational power to run the RTL-SDR and ADS-B decoder.