Mario Filippi, a regular contributor to our blog and to the SDR community recently wrote in with an article showing how he built an S-Band (2 – 4 GHz) antenna for use with the HackRF. Of course the antenna can be used with any other SDR that can receive in this range, or with an RTL-SDR and downconverter. We post his article below.
S -Band Antenna for use with the HackRF One Author: Mario Filippi, N2HUN
Ever since purchasing a HackRF One, which receives from 1 MHz – 6.0 GHz I’ve always wanted to explore the world above 1 Gig, specifically the 2.0 – 2.7 GHz portion of the S-band. This portion of the band is populated with satellite communications, ISM, amateur radio, and wireless networks. A good, homebrew antenna for S-band was needed, so with parts mostly from the junk box, a 2250 MHz S-band right hand circularly polarized omni-directional antenna was built. Below is a step by step tutorial on building this antenna. Plans were from UHF-Satcom’s site.
Earlier in June YouTube user T3CHNOTURK posted a video demonstrating him receiving signals above the maximum 1.7 GHz range of the RTL-SDR by using a modified SUP-2400 downconverter. Back in April it was discovered by KD0CQ that a $5 DirecTV SUP-2400 circuit could be modified and turned into a downconverter for use with the RTL-SDR.
Now T3CHNOTURK has uploaded a new video showing more demonstrations of the RTL-SDR + SUP-2400 combo in action. This time he adds a PGA-103 based LNA to boost the signal strength, which gives him better effective range. In the video he shows reception of a wireless keyboard once again, and then goes on to show him receiving 2.4 GHz analog PAL video using the RTL-SDR program TVSharp. The picture is not particularly clear, but it is a decent demonstration.
Back in April we posted about how KD0CQ found that he could receive signals up to 4.5 GHz with an RTL-SDR by using a $5 downconverter for DirecTV called the SUP-2400. The RTL-SDR can only receive up to a maximum frequency of about 1.7 GHz, but the SUP-2400 downconverter can be modified to convert frequencies at around 2.4 GHz down into a range receivable by the RTL-SDR.
When we first posted the story the instructions for modifying the SUP-2400 to use as a downconverter weren’t uploaded yet, but they are now. The modification requires decent soldering skills as it involves desoldering a few small SMD components and bridging some points with wires.
Over on YouTube user T3CHNOTURK has uploaded a video showing the downconverter in action. With the SUP-2400 downconverter and RTL-SDR he is able to receive some WiFi at 2.447 GHz as well as signals from a wireless keyboard at 2.465 GHz
RTLSDR Receiveing wifi & 2.4 ghz ism band with moded SUP-2400 Downconverter
The secret to doing this cheaply is revealed by KD0CQ. He shows that a very cheap $5 Directv SUP-2400upconverter can be converted into a 2.4 GHz downconverter simply by removing some filters. He writes that he hasn’t uploaded the full set of steps to modify the SUP-2400 yet, but he intends to do so in the near future.
There is also a discussion about this mod on Reddit. Several posters have been discussing what applications a cheap downconverter could open up. Some mentioned applications include receiving various satellites in the C/S bands, DECT cordless phones @ 1.9 GHz, SiriusXM satellite radio @ 2.3 GHz, ISM @ 2.4 GHz, RADARs, RC aircraft control/telemetry/video and ham beacons.
The ThumbNet project is a project that is aiming to provide low cost satellite receivers to students and any other interested communities in order to promote worldwide education in science, technology and engineering.
In addition to ThumbNet, there is also the ThumbSat project which hopes to launch it’s own satellites sometime next year. However, at the moment the focus is on ThumbNet where the team are currently building their ground station network by supplying customized RTL-SDR dongles to schools and interested communities all around the world for free.
Once the satellites are launched the receive stations will be used to download data from the ThumbSat satellites, creating a large network of receivers. To raise the incentive for participation, in the future they also hope to provide a small amount of money to each actively participating school or organisation. They write that the RTL-SDR’s could also be used for receiving other educational signals such as communications from the ISS. More information about the project can be found on their website www.thumbsat.com, and in this white paper (pdf).
As generic RTL-SDR dongles were not up to their specifications they decided to develop their own. Their RTL-SDR receivers are custom made to have a 1 PPM accuracy Temperature Controlled Oscillator (TCXO), a R820T2 tuner chip and a F-Type connector. The Type-F connector was chosen as they found that it was the most commonly found connector around the world and would be the easiest for students in remote areas to have access to.
If you are interested in getting one of these dongles and you meet their criteria (school or similar), you can either ask to participate in the ThumbNet program for free, or alternatively if you just want a dongle for your own use you can buy one through us. We have decided to help with the ThumbSat project by helping them advertise and sell off some of their surplus units through our blog.
In their official blurb ThumbSat writes:
Scoutek LTD, in the United Kingdom and ThumbSat Inc, in the United States are proud to have partnered together to provide an opportunity for schools and educational groups around the globe to promote radio science, technology, engineering and mathematics to their students and attempt to influence the next generation of scientists and engineers. By donating small radio kits to each school or educational group, the project has already begun making a positive change in the lives of hundreds of students.
ThumbSat has been working with schools and educational groups around the globe and to date, more than 20 groups have committed to volunteering where students and staff members will operate the satellite monitoring stations as part of their science courses! As a few examples, stations are being operated in diverse areas the Cook Islands, Christmas Island, Singapore, Ecuador, Tanzania and Botswana. One individual in Micronesia was operating the station by himself at 12 years old!
ThumbNet is open to anyone who is interested in participating and has a desire to setup and operate a small ground based radio listening station. No permits or licenses are required, since there is no transmission of any sort and no permanently installed antenna systems.
ThumbSat and Scoutek encourage education for everyone and is looking for anyone young, old, educated or uneducated, individuals or groups to participate.