Tagged: downconverter

Modded SUP-2400 Downconverters now Available at RXTXDX.com for $25

Last week we posted about KD0CQ’s interest check on his ready to go modded SUP-2400 downconverter. Interest was strong so the unit is now available for sale on a store he’s just set up at RXTXDX.com. The ready to go unit costs $25 USD including a 9V battery plug and F->SMA or MCX adapter.

Last year KD0CQ discovered that the SUP-2400 is a cheap $5 – $10 DirecTV (US satellite TV) module which can be hand modded into a downconverter for the RTL-SDR. A downconverter allows you to listen to frequencies above the maximum frequency range of the RTL-SDR by converting frequencies down into a range receivable by the RTL-SDR (or of course any other SDR). The modified SUP-2400 allows to you listen up to just over 4 GHz.

The SUP-2400 modification is moderately involved and requires soldering and desoldering SMD pieces, so this product is great for anyone who just wants a cheap and low cost downconverter which is ready to go. And at $25 USD it’s still very good value. Shipping within the USA is $7.75, and internationally it is about $13.50.

The modified SUP-2400 Downconverter
The modified SUP-2400 Downconverter

Interest Check: KD0CQ Pre-Modified SUP-2400 Downconverters

Over on his blog KD0CQ has posted an interest check. He’d like to know if anyone would be interested in purchasing pre-modified SUP-2400 downconverters from him. We’ve posted about the SUP-2400 a few times in the past. Basically the SUP-2400 is a cheap (about $5 – $10 USD) DirecTV device which can be modified and turned into a downconverter for your RTL-SDR. A downconverter allows you to listen to higher frequencies, up to 4.5 GHz in the case of the SUP-2400 and an RTL-SDR. 

The modification involves some decent soldering skills as it involves removing some small SMD components and using wires to bridge some points. KD0CQ writes that he’s thinking of selling premodified SUP-2400 units for $20 – $25 to interested customers. If you think that you’d be interested in this please comment on his post.

SUP-2400 Circuit.
SUP-2400 Circuit.

Potentially Receiving up to 10 GHz with an RTL-SDR and Multiple SUP-24000 Downconverters

Back in 2016 KD0CQ discovered that a $5 DirectTV device with model name SUP-2400 could be used as a downconverter with an RTL-SDR for receiving frequencies of up to 4.5 GHz. A downconverter is a device that converts high frequencies such as 4.5 GHz down into a frequency actually receivable by the RTL-SDR. The SUP-2400 is able to be modified into a useful downconverter by opening it up and manually removing some mixing harmonic filters.

In his latest post KD0CQ shows how you could combine four modified SUP-2400 downconverters to create a quarduple conversion mixer which allows you to receive up to 10 GHz. The post goes into the mixing math and practicalities of this idea. KD0CQ writes that some amplification will most likely be required to push the signal through, and in the past he’s managed to receive up to 7.5 GHz.

The SUP-2400 Directv upconverter that can be converted into a downconverter.
The SUP-2400 DirecTV device that can be converted into a downconverter.

Nigun Downconverter PCB Completed

We last posted about Nigun back in January 2017, and at that point the schematic design had just been completed. Nigun is a downconverter which can be used to allow the RTL-SDR and other SDRs to receive frequencies above their typical maximum tuning range, which for the RTL-SDR is about 1.8 GHz. A downconverter works by taking those high frequencies and converting them down into a frequency which the SDR can actually tune to.

Recently “raziele”, the designer of Nigun has completed the PCB design and he aims to order the first batch of units during June. The main specifications of Nigun are pasted below:

  • Dynamic LO – LO will be determined by the user and programmed by the MCU
  • Almost no filtering – will leave this challenge outside of this project scope
  • Power up and programming via micro-usb connector. Should be able to power up from a USB power-pack (but probably not from a computer port)
  • Highest RF frequency will be 3GHz
  • Product also features a VCO for signal-generation purposes. VCO support should be 200-2700MHz

Previously Outernet had been working on a downconverter design for their 1.5 GHz satellite service, but they decided that it was not economical. So it is good to see an alternative downconverter in the works. More details about Nigun are available on the GitHub page.

The Nigun Downconverter PCB Design
The Nigun Downconverter PCB Design

Nigun (Melody): Open Hardware Plans for an RTL-SDR Downconverter

A downconverter is a circuit that allows the RTL-SDR to receive frequencies above its maximum frequency range of about 1.8 GHz. It works by converting all higher frequencies down into a lower frequency which can be received by the RTL-SDR. It is the opposite of an upconverter which is used to receive HF frequencies on an RTL-SDR. In the past the Outernet project was working on a commercial downconverter product for the RTL-SDR, but they had to unfortunately put an end to that project as the costs were not economical.

But now over on GitHub Raziel Einhorn has uploaded plans for his open hardware 1.5 – 3 GHz downconverter which is code named Nigun (Melody). Currently the design has just about been completed, and he is planning to order the first prototype this January. The main component appears to be the ADRF6612 RF mixer which is controlled by an ATSAMD21E18A ARM microcontroller. On the GitHub page he explains the main properties as:

  • Dynamic LO – LO will be determined by the user and programmed by the MCU
  • Almost no filtering – will leave this challenge outside of this project scope
  • Power up and programming via micro-usb connector. Should be able to power up from a USB power-pack (but probably not from a computer port)
  • Highest RF frequency will be 3GHz
  • Product also features a VCO for signal-generation purposes. VCO support should be 200-2700MHz
Nigun Downconverter Schematics
Nigun Downconverter Schematics

Using the SUP-2400 Downconverter with an LNA and RTL-SDR to Receive 2.4 GHz Video

Earlier in June YouTube user T3CHNOTURK posted a video demonstrating him receiving signals above the maximum 1.7 GHz range of the RTL-SDR by using a modified SUP-2400 downconverter. Back in April it was discovered by KD0CQ that a $5 DirecTV SUP-2400 circuit could be modified and turned into a downconverter for use with the RTL-SDR.

Now T3CHNOTURK has uploaded a new video showing more demonstrations of the RTL-SDR + SUP-2400 combo in action. This time he adds a PGA-103 based LNA to boost the signal strength, which gives him better effective range. In the video he shows reception of a wireless keyboard once again, and then goes on to show him receiving 2.4 GHz analog PAL video using the RTL-SDR program TVSharp. The picture is not particularly clear, but it is a decent demonstration.

A Demonstration of the RTL-SDR Receiving WiFi and 2.4 GHz ISM with a Modded SUP-2400 Downconverter

Back in April we posted about how KD0CQ found that he could receive signals up to 4.5 GHz with an RTL-SDR by using a $5 downconverter for DirecTV called the SUP-2400. The RTL-SDR can only receive up to a maximum frequency of about 1.7 GHz, but the SUP-2400 downconverter can be modified to convert frequencies at around 2.4 GHz down into a range receivable by the RTL-SDR.

When we first posted the story the instructions for modifying the SUP-2400 to use as a downconverter weren’t uploaded yet, but they are now. The modification requires decent soldering skills as it involves desoldering a few small SMD components and bridging some points with wires.

Over on YouTube user T3CHNOTURK has uploaded a video showing the downconverter in action. With the SUP-2400 downconverter and RTL-SDR he is able to receive some WiFi at 2.447 GHz as well as signals from a wireless keyboard at 2.465 GHz

Testing a Prototype of the Outernet L-Band Downconverter

Outernet are a startup company that hope to revolutionize the way people in regions with no, poor or censored internet connectivity receive information. Their service is downlink only, and runs on C and L-band satellite signals, beaming up to date news as well as other information like books, educational videos and files daily. To receive it you will need one of their official or homemade versions of the Lighthouse or Lantern receivers (the latter of which is still to be released), or an RTL-SDR or similar SDR. Recently they began test broadcasts of their new 5 kHz 1539.8725 MHz L-band signal on Inmarsat I4F3 located at 98W (covers the Americas), and they hope to begin broadcasts in more regions soon too.

The typical RTL-SDR is known to often have poor or failing performance above 1.5 GHz (though this can be fixed to some extent), so Outernet have been working on an L-band downconverter. A downconverter works by receiving signals, and shifting them down to a lower frequency. This is advantageous because the RTL-SDR is more sensitive and does not fail at lower frequencies, and if used close to the antenna, the lower frequency allows longer runs of cheap coax cable to be used without significant signal loss.

Earlier this week we received in the mail a prototype of their downconverter. The downconverter uses a 1.750 GHz LO signal, so any signal input into it will be subtracted from this frequency. For example the STD-C frequency of 1.541450 GHz will be reduced to 1750 MHz – 1541.450 MHz = 208.55 MHz. This also means that the spectrum will appear reversed, but this can be corrected by selecting “Swap I & Q” in SDR#. The downconverter also amplifies the signal with an LNA, and has a filter to remove interfering out of band signals.

The Outernet downconverter circuit board.
The prototype Outernet downconverter circuit board.
Specsheet for the downconverter.
Specsheet for the downconverter.

We tested the downconverter using their patch antenna which they had sent to us at an earlier date (the patch antenna is used and shown in this Inmarsat STD-C reception tutorial). Our testing found that overall the downconverter works extremely well, giving us much better signal levels. Previously, we had used the patch + LNA4ALL and were able to get reception good enough to decode STD-C and AERO signals, but with the requirement that the patch be carefully pointed at the satellite for maximum signal. With the downconverter the signals come in much stronger, and accurate pointing of the patch is no longer required to get a signal strong enough to decode STD-C or AERO.

The downconverter can be powered by a bias tee connection, and this works well with our bias tee enabled RTL-SDR dongles. We also tested with the bias tee on the Airspy R2 and Mini and had no problems. It can also be powered with a direct 5V connection to a header, and they note that the header will be replaced by a USB connector in the production version.

The release date and exact price that these will be sold at is not confirmed, but we believe that it will be priced similarly to upconverters at around $50 USD or less. A good low cost downconverter should help RTL-SDR and other SDR users receive not only the Outernet signal better, but also other satellite signals such as STD-C and AERO. Although the input is filtered and the RF frequency is specified at 1525 to 1559 MHz, we had no trouble receiving signals up to GPS frequencies of 1575 MHz, and even up to Iridium signals at 1.626 GHz, though reception was much weaker up that high.

Below are some screenshots of reception. Here we used the Outernet patch antenna sitting in a windowsill with the downconverter directly after the antenna, and then 10 meters of RG6 coax cable to the PC and bias tee enabled RTL-SDR. We found that with the downconverted ~200 MHz signal the loss in the RG6 coax was negligible. Better reception could be obtained by putting the patch outdoors. In some screenshots we used Vasilli’s R820T driver with the decimation feature, which allows you to zoom into narrowband signals much more clearly.

Some AERO Signals Zoomed in with the Decimation feature in SDR#.
Some AERO Signals Zoomed in with the Decimation feature in SDR#. Received with the Outernet downconverter and patch antenna.
Some AERO and other Signals Zoomed in with the Decimation feature in SDR#.
Some AERO and other Signals Zoomed in with the Decimation feature in SDR#. Received with the Outernet downconverter and patch antenna.
Signals zoomed out.
Signals zoomed out. Received with the Outernet downconverter and patch antenna.