Over on YouTube user RedWhiteandPew has uploaded two videos showing what VOR and ILS signals look like in SDR# with an RTL-SDR dongle. VOR and ILS are both radio signals used for navigation in aviation.
VOR stands for VHF Omnidirectional Range and is a way to help aircraft navigate by using fixed ground based beacons. The beacons are specially designed in such a way that the aircraft can use the beacon to determine a bearing towards the VOR transmitter. VOR beacons are found between 108 MHz and 117.95 MHz.
Here I am picking up the VOR beacon from KSJC. The coolest part is at the end of the video. I believe the signal moving back and forth is caused by the Doppler effect, because VORs transmit their signals in a circular pattern. The VOR wiki article has a GIF that shows how it works here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VHF_omn…. If you play and pause the video at different points before I zoom in, you can see that the two signals on the side are the opposite phase.
ILS stands for Instrument Landing System and is a radio system that enables aircraft to land on a runway safely even without visual contact. It works by using highly directional antennas to create four directional lobes (two in the horizontal plane, two in the vertical) that are used to try and ensure the aircraft is centered and leveled on the approach correctly. The ILS frequencies are at 108.1 – 111.95 MHz for the horizontal ‘localizer’, and at 329.15-335.0 MHz for the vertical ‘glide slope’.
Here I have tuned into one of KSJC’s ILS frequencies. You are able to hear the faint identifier beeping transmitting its ISL ID code which is ISJC. For comparison, I used to morse code translator website.
The reason I am hearing ISJC and not ISLV even though they are on the same frequency is because the localizers transmitting the signal are directional along the length of the runway. Since I am located to the south east of the airport, and I am within its transmitting beam, I am able to listen to it on a scanner.
If you’re interested in these signals then this previous post about actually decoding them might be of interest to you.
Previously we posted about Will’s (aka hpux735) project  where he has been using an RTL-SDR dongle to help understand and decode aircraft navigation VOR signals. VOR is an acronym for VHF Omni Directional Radio Range and is an older method of navigation used by aircraft which is used to provide a heading towards a VOR transmitter.
In his latest video, Will has been able to finish his code which allows him to actually plot some VOR data that he obtained from a flight on a map. In the video the VOR data is used to draw a heading line between three recorded VOR transmitters and the aircraft. The video clearly shows the accuracy of the VOR signals (about 1 degree) and shows what happens to the heading accuracy when reception is bad.
Now over on YouTube William has uploaded a new video that continues his series on decoding VOR and navigation radio signals. This time he focuses on ILS or Instrument Landing System signals. The ILS is a radio system that is used to help aircraft find and land on the runway safely even in reduced visibility situations such as rain and fog. William’s video explains how ILS works and also shows how he is able to make use of the ILS signal in GNU Radio to extract navigation information.
Over on YouTube user hpux735 has uploaded a video where he explores the feasibility of receiving VOR radio navigation signals using GNU Radio and an RTL-SDR. VOR is an acronym for VHF Omni Directional Radio Range and is an older method of navigation used by aircraft which is quickly being made redundant due to GPS navigation. VOR uses two signals, one master omnidirectional signal and one rotating directional signal. By doing some calculations on the received phase of these two signals it is possible to determine the angle of the aircraft from the transmitter.
In the video hpux735 explains and discusses the VOR signal and also shows how to use these signals for navigation with an RTL-SDR and GNU Radio flowchart. To receive the VOR signal he uses an RTL-SDR to record the VOR signal while he drives around with a car. Then later he uses his GNU Radio program to generate a plot that shows when he is moving and in which direction.
hpux735 has also uploaded some supplemental material over on his blog. In the future he hopes to correlate his VOR results with GPS coordinates that he will take whilst actually flying around.
VHF Omni Directional Radio Range (VOR) signals are used in aviation as a short range radio navigational system. Amateur radio hobbyist F4GKR decided to study these VOR signals by recording them using his RTL-SDR, and then analyzing them in MATLAB. On his post he shows his method of analysis and discusses his results.